Kahnawake (Mohawk: Kahnawá:ke, „Platz der Stromschnellen“, englisch früher Caughnawaga) ist ein Mohawk-Reservat in Québec, Kanada. Es liegt am. Die Kahnawake Gaming Commission (KGC, dt. Kahnawake-Glücksspielkommision) ist eine regulatorische Verwaltungseinheit in Québec, die für die. Wenn man Mohawks im First Nations-Reservat Kahnawake in ihrer Herkunftssprache anspricht – und wenn es nur zur Begrüßung oder zum Abschied ist – tritt. Und was kommt dabei heraus? „Kahnawake (Mohawk: Kahnawá:ke, englisch früher Caughnawaga) ist ein Mohawk-Reservat in Québec, Kanada. Es liegt am. Auf Tripadvisor finden Sie alles für Kahnawake, Quebec: unabhängige Bewertungen von Hotels, Restaurants und Sehenswürdigkeiten sowie authentische.
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Search Kahnawake Obituaries 87 Obituaries. Receive obituaries. Beverly Deer May 17, View obituary. Walter Joseph Beauvais April 27, View obituary.
Veronica Stacey May 2, 79 years old View obituary. Juliette Boyer Curotte April 28, View obituary. Dean Robertson March 10, View obituary.
Cecilia Phillips February 18, View obituary. Russell Walter Doxtdator February 11, View obituary. Cynthia Latour February 11, View obituary.
Kathryn Charles February 8, View obituary. Audrey Johnson Diabo February 11, View obituary. James Taroniaketon Meloche February 7, View obituary.
Valerie McComber February 8, View obituary. Cody Andrew Diabo January 22, View obituary. Ronald Goodleaf January 9, View obituary.
Michael Sonny Walker January 2, View obituary. Melanie Phillips December 13, View obituary. Gerald Alexander Marquis December 8, View obituary.
The French colony of New France used Kahnawake as part of a southwestern defence for Ville-Marie later Montreal and placed a military garrison there.
The Jesuits founded a mission to administer to local Mohawk and other First Nations. This became a base for their missionary priests who were sent to the west.
Jesuit records give a settlement date of Kahnawake was created in what was known as the Seigneurie du Sault-Saint-Louis , a 40,acre Because the Jesuits assumed rights as seigneurs of the Sault, they permitted French and other European colonists to settle there and collected their rents.
The new governor Thomas Gage ordered the reserve to be entirely and exclusively vested in the Mohawk, under the supervision of the Indian Department.
Despite repeated complaints by the Mohawk, many government agents continued land and rent mismanagement and allowed non-Native encroachment.
Surveyors were found to have modified some old maps at the expense of the Kahnawake people. Moreover, from the late s until the s, the Mohawk were required by the government to make numerous land cessions to railway, hydro-electric, and telephone companies for major industrial projects along the river.
In the late 20th century, the Mohawk Nation was pursuing land claims to regain lost land. Led by the Mohawk Council of Kahnawake and Kahnawake's Inter-governmental Relations Team, the community has filed claims with the government of Canada.
It is seeking monetary compensation and symbolic recognition of its claim. The complex history of Kahnawake has included a variety of indigenous peoples , although the Mohawk became by far the majority.
They had a practice of adopting captives into the tribe, mostly young women and children taken in raids. They made them full members, including Europeans.
The Mohawk had a matrilineal kinship system, with children considered born into the clan of the mother and deriving their status from her family.
During the 17th and early 18th centuries, there was extensive raiding between the English and British, and French along the northern border, with each side aided by First Nations and Native American allies.
European communities often raised ransoms to regain their captives, but some were kept by indigenous communities.
For instance, more than captives were taken during the Raid on Deerfield to Montreal and Kahnawake in The minister of Deerfield was ransomed, but his young daughter was kept by the Mohawk, ultimately marrying into the tribe, having children and choosing to stay with her new family.
In addition, there was some European settlement after the reserve land was "donated" by the French Crown in the midth century, and the French government stationed French colonial troops there who formed liaisons with local women and had children by them.
Shopkeepers also formed families, and through the 18th century, many marriages occurred between European men and Indian women. Multiracial children born to Mohawk mothers were readily assimilated into the mother's family and the nation.
They noted that many children who appeared to be of European ancestry were being brought up culturally as Mohawk. The Tarbell ancestors, for instance, were John and Zachary, brothers captured as young children from Groton, Massachusetts in during Queen Anne's War and taken to Canada.
Adopted by Mohawk families in Kahnawake, the boys became assimilated: they were baptized as Catholic, learned the Mohawk ways and were given Mohawk names, married women who were daughters of chiefs, reared children with them, and became chiefs themselves.
Historic sources document the sometimes strained relations between Mohawk and ethnic Europeans at Kahnawake, usually over property and the competition for limited resources.
In , community residents objected to the garrison of French soldiers because they feared it would cause "horrible discord" and showed the French did not trust the locals.
In the mids, the community evicted the Desaulnier sisters, traders who were garnering profits formerly earned by members of Kahnawake.
In , twenty-two Mohawk pressed British officials to help them prevent two local families from bringing French families to settle "on lands reserved for their common use".
In , many were opposed to specific types of "mixed" marriages. In , agent Nicolas Doucet reported that the community was growing frustrated by marriages in which white husbands acquired rights over the lives and properties of their Iroquois wives according to British Canadian laws, especially as the Iroquois culture was matrilineal , with descent and property invested in the maternal line.
Abuse of alcohol was a continuing problem. In , the village expelled white traders who were "poisoning" the Iroquois "with rum and spirituous liquors".
Tensions rose at the time of the Lower Canada Rebellion. The Mohawk had suffered incursions on their land, including non-Natives' taking valuable firewood.
The Kahnawake cooperated with the British Crown against the Patriotes , largely over the issue of preserving their land and expressing their collective identity.
Before and after the Rebellions, the community was fiercely divided regarding the rights of mixed-race residents, such as Antoine-George de Lorimier the son of Claude-Nicolas-Guillaume de Lorimier , and whether he should be evicted.
Although his mother was Mohawk and native to Kahnawake, because of his father's and his own connections to the European community, George de Lorimier became a controversial figure in Kahnawake, even after his death in In the s and s, land and resource pressures renewed local concern about ethnic Europeans living at Kahnawake.
In addition, the national government's passage of legislation, from enfranchisement to the Indian Advancement Act of , which prohibited traditional chiefs and required Canadian-style elections, split the community and added to tensions.
Some young Mohawk men wanted a chance to advance independently to being chiefs; other people wanted to keep the traditional, hereditary seven life chiefs selected from the seven clans.
The inequalities in landownership among Kahnawake residents led to resentment of the wealthy. For instance, in , the multiracial sons of the late George de Lorimier were the largest and wealthiest landowners in the community.
Some Kahnawake residents questioned whether people who were not full-blood Mohawk should be allowed to own so much land. Some, like the de Lorimier brothers, gradually sold their properties and pursued their lives elsewhere.
Because the Indian Department did not provide adequate support to the reserve, the community continued to struggle financially.
At one point, the Kahnawake chiefs suggested selling the reserve to raise money for annuities for the tribe. Social unrest increased, with young men attacking houses, barns and farm animals of people they resented.
Under the Walbank Survey, the national government surveyed and subdivided the land of the reserve, allotting some plots individually to each head of household eligible to live in Kahnawake.
The violence stopped as the new form of privatisation of land was instituted, but antagonism toward some community members did not. The election of council chiefs began in , but the influence of Kahnawake's shadow government of traditional clan chiefs persisted.
This lasted into the s, when the traditional seven-clan system became absorbed in the Longhouse Movement , which was based on three clans.
This was strong through the s. Historically, the federal and Quebec governments have often located large civil engineering projects benefiting the southern Quebec economy through Kahnawake land because of its proximity to the Saint Lawrence River.
The reserve is criss-crossed by power lines from hydroelectric plants, railways , and vehicle highways and bridges.
In and , the new bridge was built across the broad river from Kahnawake to the Island of Montreal. Kahnawake men worked as bridgemen and ironworkers hundreds of feet above the water and ground.
When the national government decided to pass the Saint Lawrence Seaway canal cut through the village, the people and buildings of Kahnawake were permanently separated from the natural river shore.
The loss of land and access to the river, the demolition of houses, and the change in the community's relationship to the river have had profound effects on Kahnawake.
The people had been sited there for hundreds of years, and their identities were related to a profound knowledge of the river, from the time they were children through adulthood.
One effect of the losses was to make the community determined not to suffer more encroachment. They drew together and became stronger.
The Mohawk success on major high-rise construction projects inspired the legend that Native American men had no fear of working at heights.
Numerous Kahnawake men continued as iron and steelworkers in Canada. Thirty-three Kahnawake Mohawk died in the collapse of the Quebec Bridge in , one of the worst construction failures of all time.
They erected crosses of steel girders at both ends of the reserve to honour them. Many Kahnawake ironworkers went to New York City to work during the first half of the 20th century.
Its building boom stimulated construction of notable skyscrapers and bridges. For more than a generation, many Kahnawake men participated in building the Empire State Building , and other major skyscrapers in New York City, as well as many bridges.
They brought their families with them, and most Mohawk from Kahnawake lived in Brooklyn. They called their neighbourhood "Little Caughnawaga" after their homeland.
While the men worked on skyscrapers, the women created a strong community for their families. Many also worked outside the home.
In the summers, the families would return to Kahnawake to stay with relatives and renew connections. Some of the people who grew up in Brooklyn as children still have the local New York accent, although they have long lived in Kahnawake.
Kahnawake high steel workers in New York were the subject of the documentary High Steel , as seen through the story of Harold McComber.
With continuing late 20th-century conflicts over who could reside at the reserve, the elected chiefs of the Mohawk Council of Kahnawake MCK passed laws regulating membership or eligibility for residence at Kahnawake.
In they passed a law that non-natives could not reside in the community; those Mohawk who marry outside of the nation lose the right to live in the homeland.
In the 21st century, they did not want non-Natives living at the reserve, even if a person had adopted the Mohawk language or culture.
The policy is based on a community moratorium on non-Native residency, which Kahnawake enacted into law in Although some concerned Mohawk citizens contested the racially exclusive membership policy, the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal ruled that the Mohawk Kahnawake government may adopt policies it deems necessary to ensure the survival of its people.
In February , the issue was renewed when the Mohawk Council of Kahnawake elected to evict 35 non-Natives from the reserve.
While the action was legal according to the membership laws, critics believed the council was acting specifically against some individuals.
These persons had lived on the reserve for 10 years or more and contributed to the community. The council said they were responding to complaints from residents about limited housing and land being occupied by non-Natives.
Steve Bonspiel, publisher and editor of Kahnawake newspaper The Eastern Door , said that the issue dated back to At that time, when non-Native people with no ties in the community were asked to leave, they were harassed and even physically attacked.
Bonspiel thought the council's threat to publish the names of people ineligible to live on the reserve was inappropriate as a means to use public pressure and potentially physical threat against them.
The Federal Indian Affairs Minister Chuck Strahl said there was nothing illegal about the band's eviction of non-members:.
It is important for people to realize that whether I like the decisions or not, these are decisions made by First Nations people on their own land It is not for me to make those decisions, or the Government, and we are not going to be making those decisions.
She said their actions did not represent the traditional inclusiveness of Mohawk communities, which had historically assimilated adoptees and marriage partners.
She criticized the council for interfering in the private lives of persons who had chosen non-Native partners.
She noted the Mohawk had long been successful at integrating people within their communities, and have still preserved their language and culture over the centuries.
Kahnawake VideoOn patrol with the Kahnawake Mohawk Peacekeeprs
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